AUG 4, 2023

The judiciary is an independent organ under the Indian Constitution.  As such, the rules of practice and procedures governing appearance of litigants before the courts are framed by the courts themselves. The Supreme Court and High Courts, in exercise of the powers conferred on them under Article 145 and 225 of the Constitution of India respectively, make rules for regulating the Court’s practice and procedures. The Central Government has no direct role in the said matter.  The Central Government is fully committed to the independence of judiciary and constantly endeavors to provide a conducive environment to aid justice delivery. The Government has adopted a co-ordinated approach to assist judiciary in the task of dispensation of justice to the litigants, which, inter-alia, involves better infrastructure for courts, including computerization, increase in the strength of judicial officers / judges, policy and legislative measures in the areas prone to excessive litigation, and emphasis on human resource development. The details of the multiple steps taken by the Government are as under:-

  1. Under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme for Judicial Infrastructure, funds are being released to States/UTs for construction of court halls, residential quarters for judicial officers, lawyers’ halls, toilet complexes and digital computer rooms that would ease the life of lawyers and litigants, thereby aiding justice delivery. As on date, Rs. 10035 crores have been released since the inception of the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) for Development of Infrastructure Facilities for the Judiciary in 1993-94. The number of court halls has increased from 15,818 as on 30.06.2014 to 21,365 as on 30.06.2023, and number of residential units has increased from 10,211 as on 30.06.2014 to 18,846 as on 30.06.2023, under this scheme.
  2. Further under the e-Courts Mission Mode Project, information and communication technology (ICT) has been leveraged for IT enablement of district and subordinate courts. The number of computerised district & subordinate courts has increased to 18,735 so far. WAN connectivity has been provided to 99.4% of court complexes.  Video conferencing facility has been enabled between 3,240 court complexes and 1,272 corresponding jails. 815 e-Sewa Kendras have been set up at court complexes to facilitate lawyers and litigants needing assistance ranging from case status, getting judgments/orders, court/case-related information, and efiling facilities. 22 virtual courts have been set up in 18 States/UTs. As on 31.05.2023, these courts have handled more than 3.113 crore cases and realized more than Rs. 408 crores in fines. E-courts Phase III is about to begin which intends to incorporate latest technology such Artificial Intelligence(AI) and Block chain to make justice delivery more robust, easy and accessible to all the stakeholders.
  3. Government has been regularly filling up the vacancies in higher judiciary. From 01.05.2014 to 10.07.2023, 56 Judges were appointed in Supreme Court. 919 new Judges were appointed and 653 Additional Judges were made permanent in the High Courts. Sanctioned strength of Judges of High Courts has been increased from 906 in May, 2014 to 1114 currently. sanctioned and working strength of judicial officers in district and subordinate courts has increased as follow:
As onSanctioned StrengthWorking Strength

However, filling up of vacancies in subordinate judiciary falls within the domain of the State Governments and high courts concerned.

  1. In pursuance of a Resolution passed in Chief Justices’ Conference held in April, 2015, Arrears Committees have been set up in all 25 High Courts to clear cases pending for more than five years. Arrears Committees have been set up under District courts as well.
  2. Under the aegis of  the Fourteenth Finance Commission,the government has established Fast Track Courts for dealing with cases of heinous crimes; cases involving senior citizens, women, children etc. As on 31.05.2023, 832 Fast Track Courts are functional for heinous crimes, crimes against women, and children etc. To fast track criminal cases involving elected MPs / MLAs, ten (10) Special Courts are functional in nine (9) States/UTs. Further, the Central Government has approved a scheme for setting up 1023 Fast Track Special Courts (FTSCs) across the country for the expeditious disposal of pending cases of Rape under IPC and crimes under POCSO Act. As on date, 28 States/UTs have joined the scheme.
  3. With a view to reduce pendency and unclogging of the courts, the Government has recently amended various laws like the Negotiable Instruments (Amendment) Act, 2018, the Commercial Courts (Amendment) Act, 2018, the Specific Relief (Amendment) Act, 2018, the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2019 and the Criminal Laws (Amendment) Act, 2018.
  1. Alternate Dispute Resolution methods have been promoted whole heartedly. Accordingly, the Commercial Courts Act, 2015 was amended on 20th August, 2018 making Pre-institution Mediation and Settlement (PIMS)  mandatory in case of commercial disputes. Amendment to the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 has been made by the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act 2015 for expediting the speedy resolution of disputes by prescribing timelines.
  2. Lok Adalat is an important Alternative Disputes Resolution Mechanism available to common people. It is a forum where the disputes/ cases pending in the court of law or at pre-litigation stage are settled/ compromised amicably. Under the Legal Services Authorities (LSA) Act, 1987, an award made by a Lok Adalat is deemed to be a decree of a civil court and is final and binding on all parties and no appeal lies against thereto before any court. Lok Adalat is not a permanent establishment. National Lok Adalats are organized simultaneously in all Taluks, Districts and High Courts on a pre-fixed date. The details of the case disposed off in Lok Adalats during the last three years are as under:-
YearsPre-litigation CasesPending CasesGrand Total
2023 (upto 17.06.2023)3,00,11,29161,88,6863,61,99,977
  1. The Government launched the Tele-Law programme in 2017, which provided an effective and reliable e-interface platform connecting the needy and disadvantaged sections seeking legal advice and consultation with panel lawyers via video conferencing, telephone and chat facilities available at the Common Service Centres (CSCs) situated in Gram Panchayat and through Tele-Law mobile App.

*Percentage Wise break-up of Tele – Law Data

Till 28th Feb, 2023Cases Registered% Wise Break UpAdvice Enabled% Wise Break Up
Gender Wise
Caste Category Wise
Total45,81,912 44,66,376 
  1. Efforts have been made to institutionalize pro bono culture and pro bono lawyering the country. A technological framework has been put in place where advocates volunteering to give their time and services for pro bono work can register as Pro Bono Advocates on Nyaya Bandhu (Android & iOS and Apps). Nyaya Bandhu Services also available on UMANG Platform. Pro Bono Panel of advocates have been initiated in 21 High Courts at the State level. Pro Bono Clubs have been started in 69 select Laws Schools to instill Pro Bono culture in budding lawyers.

This information was given by the Minister of Law and Justice, Shri Arjun Ram Meghwal, in a written reply in Lok Sabha today.

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