Multiple Indicator Survey (MIS) – NSS 78th Round Report [2020-21]

MARCH 7, 2023



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A. Introduction


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A.1 The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) carried out the Multiple Indicator Survey (MIS) covering the entire country in its 78th round. The survey was initially planned to be conducted during the period January-December, 2020 but the field work was extended till 15.08.2021, due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The objectives of the MIS were:



  • To collect information for developing estimates of some important Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators
  • To collect information Purchase/Construction of house(s)/ flat(s) by the household for residential purpose after 31.03.2014 and information on Migration.

B. Sample Design of MIS

B.1 The whole of the Indian Union was surveyed except for some villages of Andaman and Nicobar Islands which were difficult to access. In this survey, Two Stage Stratified Sampling was used, where First Stage Unit (FSU) were villages/sub-units (SUs) in rural areas, Urban Frame Survey (UFS) blocks/SUs in urban areas. The FSUs were allocated to States and UTs in proportion to the population as per Census 2011. The Second Stage Units (SSUs) were households in both rural and urban areas. The selection of FSUs and SSUs were done by Simple Random Sampling without Replacement (SRSWOR).

C. Sampling Method

C.1 Out of the total number of 14,516 FSUs allocated for the survey at the all-India level, a total of 14,266 FSUs (8,469 rural and 5,797 urban) were surveyed for MIS. The total number of households surveyed was 2,76,409 (1,64,529 in rural areas and 1,11,880 in urban areas) and total number of persons enumerated was 11,63,416 (7,13,501 in rural areas and 4,49,915 in urban areas), at the all-India level.

D. NSS 78th Round Report

The key findings of the survey have been incorporated in the form of a report titled: ‘Report on Multiple Indicator Survey, 2020-21’ (NSS Report No. 589). The report is available at this Ministry’s website ( Some key findings of the survey are given below:

Some Key Findings

Sl NoItem DescriptionPercentage (all-India)
1Percentage of persons reported to have improved source of drinking water195.097.295.7
2Percentage of persons reported access to improved latrine, among the persons who had reported access to latrine297.599.098.0
3Percentage of persons reported access to hand washing facility with water and soap/detergent within the premises77.492.781.9
4Percentage of households using clean fuel as primary source of energy for cooking349.892.063.1
5Percentage of persons of age 15-29 years were in formal and non-formal education and training for the 12 months preceding the survey33.039.434.9
6Percentage of persons of age 15-24 years not in education, employment or training (NEET) as on date of survey30.227.029.3
7Percentage of persons of age 18 years and above who used mobile telephone with active sim card during the three months preceding the date of the survey67.883.772.7
8Percentage of households in rural areas reported availability of all-weather roads within 2 km from the place of living92.5
9Percentage of households reported purchase/ construction of any new house/flat after 31.03.201411.27.29.9
10Percentage of households reported purchase/construction of new house/flat for the first time, among the households which reported purchase/construction of any new house/flat after 31.03.201447.557.949.9
11Percentage of persons having current place of residence different from the last usual place of residence26.834.629.1
*: Rural + UrbanNotes:1. Improved source of drinking water included bottled water, piped water into dwelling, piped water to yard/plot, piped water from neighbour, public tap/standpipe, tube well, hand pump, protected well, public tanker truck, private tanker truck, protected spring, rainwater collection 2. Improved latrine included flush/ pour-flush to piped sewer system, flush/ pour-flush to septic tank, flush/ pour-flush to twin leach pits/single pit, ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with slab, composting latrine 3. Primary source of energy was defined as that source of energy which the household used majority of time. Clean fuel for cooking included the sources: (i) LPG, (ii) other natural gas, (iii) gobar gas, (iv) other biogas, (v) electricity (incl. generated by solar/ wind power generators) and (vi) solar cooker.

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